- Adnexitis - the inflammation of the ovaries and fallopian tubes
- Adnexitis - diagnosis and complications
- Adnexitis - Therapy and Prevention
Many women find a disease of the female reproductive organs to be extremely stressful. The complaints are often accompanied by feelings of shame and the fear of infertility. Since adnexitis often takes a chronic course, the visit to the gynecologist should not be postponed even with minor symptoms.
What is pelvic inflammatory disease and who is affected?
In fallopian tubes and ovaries inflammatory diseases can occur, which are technically as salpingitis (Salpinx = Greek for trumpet, whose shape the fallopian tubes remind) and oophoritis (Oo = Greek for "egg") are called. Since almost always both structures are involved in an infection, gynecologists usually speak of one pelvic inflammatory disease (Adnex = appendix), ie an inflammation of the appendages of the uterus.
Especially in English-speaking countries, the term often appears PID (pelvic inflammatory disease = inflammation of the pelvis) on. Among them, in addition to pelvic inflammatory inflammation of the uterus (endometritis) is taken. The reason is that the infection is usually caused by ascending germs, which then attack all the female reproductive organs in the pelvis on their way.
Adnexitis affects predominantly sexually active women of 15-25 years; An estimated 1-2% of women are affected by this age group. Particularly affected are smokers, women with frequently changing sexual partners, carriers of a spiral, and patients who have undergone vaginal or abdominal surgery (such as reaming).
How does adnexitis develop?
The cause is an infection, almost always with bacteria. Germs can reach the fallopian tube and ovaries in three ways: ascending from the vagina (ascending), ascending from descending organs such as the cecum or rectum, or descending through the blood (hematogenous):
- Ascending infection: This infection path is by far the most common one. In about two-thirds of cases, an infection in the lower genital tract with chlamydiae or gonococci is the underlying cause. By the inflammation, the barriers become e.g. more permeable to the cervix of the cervix and these and other germs can penetrate more easily. They lead to inflammation of the cervical mucosa (endocervicitis), then migrate through the uterus and then the fallopian tubes. The same is true for gynecological interventions or after births - even the natural defense mechanisms can be impaired and thus germs are paved the way.
- Descending infection: If adjacent organs are inflamed, the pathogens can spread from there: either - if e.g. the cecum fits snugly - by direct contact or via the lymph stream. Rarely, this can also happen during surgery (for example, appendix removal).
- Hematogenous infection: This spread of blood is comparatively rare. The result is usually an infection such as tuberculosis, mumps or flu, which can lead to severe general symptoms.